PSY 205: Study Guide: 1. A psychologist focuses mainly on ways in which psychology can help people correct personal problems and cope with stress. This psychologist is using the ______. 2. True/False: Today, men earn most of the undergraduate degrees and doctorates in psychology 3. What is a hypothesis? 4. What is the Barnum effect? 5. A source of bias that may occur in research when subjects are allowed to determine for themselves whether or not they will receive a treatment condition in a scientific study is known as a(n) ______. 6. The tendency of subjects to provide researchers with politically correct or ideal answers is typical of ______. 7. To apply observations based on a small research sample to a much larger population is to ______ the research observations. 8. What is correlational in the psychological research? 9. A scientific method that seeks to discover cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables is the ______ method. 10. Lang’s (1975) study found that men who drank nonalcoholic tonic water but who had been led to believe that it contained alcohol ______. 11. The widely used study technique developed by psychologist Francis Robinson in 1970 is the ______ system. 12. True or false: Recent research has found each of the following 1) greater cell phone usage is linked to fewer face-to-face interactions among students 2) cell phones have the potential to create social friction 3) some communities have instituted fines for inappropriate cell phone use in public places 4) cell phones have the potential to increase our social connections with others 14. Teenagers today write ______. 15. Currently, the two fastest growing US population groups are ______. 16. Freud’s psychic structures of personality can ______. 17. For Freud, the psychic structure that demands instant gratification of instincts without consideration of law, social custom, or the needs of others is the ______. 18. Andy is what most people would call a “slob.” He is careless, deliberately messy, and he also has a sadistic streak, which leads him to at times be needlessly cruel toward other people. Freud would describe Andy’s traits as ______. 19. A scientist says that he can shape a child’s personality into whatever he wants it to be through manipulation of the child’s environment. The scientist also claims that psychology should focus on measurable, testable actions and reject “mentalistic” concepts such as the “mind” that cannot be proven. This psychologist’s views are most similar to those of a ______. 20. Learning that occurs through repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus to a response-eliciting stimulus is called ______. 21. Studying for a test because it reduces your fear of failing is an example of ______. 22. People with positive self-efficacy tend to have ______ self-esteem and are ______ likely to attempt difficult tasks. 23. The theory that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in shaping personality is ______. 24. Which of these three immigrant groups has the highest self-esteem? (1) those who completely assimilate into the new culture, (2) those who keep their old customs and never assimilate into the new culture, (3) those who become bi-cultural, keeping some of the old traditions while assimilating into the new culture. 25. Scientists believe that genes ______. 26. The psychologist known for originating the concept of an identity crisis is ______. 27. The term neuroticism refers to ______. 28. What are the components of healthy personality, according to humanistic-existential psychologists? 29. A child learns to believe that she is a good person only if she behaves in certain ways, because her parents only praise her when she obeys their rules. According to Rogers, this child has most likely been brought up with ______. 30. What is Maslow’s needs hierarchy? 31. According to Maslow, self-initiated striving to become whatever we believe we are capable of being is called ______. 32. What does a high level of noise do to the body? 33. True or false? 1) Stress heaped upon stress can increase our tolerance forfrustration. 2) It is the ability to delay gratification and maintain self-control when a goal is thwarted. 3)Tolerance for frustration may fluctuate. 4) People who have learned to surmount frustration or find substitute goals for it are more tolerant of frustration. 34. In the United States, ______ find high-density living conditions to be very unpleasant. 35. The suicide rate ______ after natural disasters. 36. What is a Type A behavior pattern ? 37. According to cognitive-behavioral psychologists, the proper sequence of procedures for controlling catastrophizing thoughts is what? 38. True/False? Perfectionists ______ commit suicide when they are depressed. 39. People who have encountered frustration, but learned that it is possible to surmount barriers or find substitute goals, are ______ tolerant of frustration than those who have never experienced it. 40. According to your text, if we try to earn other people’s approval at all costs, we are likely to experience ______. 41. True or False: Researchers have found that ______. 1) the amount of information patients have is not related to their ability to manage pain 2) physicians often give people far too much information to help them effectively deal with their pain 3) the less information patients have the better they are able to manage pain 4) obtaining accurate and thorough information often helps people manage pain 42. The division of the autonomic nervous system that tones down states of bodily arousal and controls bodily processes that replenish resources, such as digestion, is the ______. 43. If the fight-or-flight reaction mobilizes the body and the stressor is not removed, we enter the ______ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. 44. Why do African Americans have a shorter life expectancy than European Americans? 45. What behavior that causes more deaths than alcohol abuse, legal and illegal drug use, motor vehicle deaths, and gun-related deaths COMBINED is ______. 46. Writing about the sources of stress in our lives appears to ______. 47. More or Less: Evidence shows that people who experience more life changes in a given period of time are ______ likely to encounter psychological health problems and ______ likely to encounter physical health problems. 48. A recent study of newlyweds found that those whose bodies pumped out high levels of stress hormones during the first year of marriage were ______ to get divorced within 10 years of marriage than others with a lower stress response. 49. The field that studies the relationship between psychological factors and the functioning of the immune system is ______. 50. When our bodily arousal becomes too high, we tend to focus on ______.
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