Climate Graphs

We will be using the Turnitin software as part of the grading process.
Answer each question to the best of your ability. Please use complete sentences. Be explicit and use terminology correctly, when in doubt define your terms. Partial credit may be given if you use the wrong term but your definition of that term is correct for your argument.

If you are asked to compare ideas, you need to use explicitly comparative language and to refer to the author of the text you cite or the groups who espouse these ideas. Eg. “Prothero (year) believes that there is ample evidence for the products of evolution by natural selection supported by the evidence of statement 1, statement 2, statement 3., Gish (cited in Prothero) disagrees because of statement 1, statement 2, statement 3 (Gish year).

You must answer all parts of the question for full credit. Cut and paste the question into your document so that you have it in front of you as you answer the question. You may bullet your answers if this is easier for you or answer in essay form.
1). Using the Climate Graphs below and your knowledge of climate from this class discuss the following questions.
What is climate?
Briefly describe the climate in each city.
What climate variable is understood from Latitude? Is latitude the strongest climate forcing? Why are the climates of San Francisco and Richmond not identical?
Compare the climates of Boston and San Francisco, why are the different? Which climate variable most closely parallels the minimum temperature in each city?

N.B. San Francisco, California, Usa is at 37°37’N, 122°23’W, 5 m
Richmond, Virginia, Usa is at 37°30’N, 77°19’W, 49 m
Boston, Massachusetts, Usa is at 42°22’N, 71°1’W, 9 m (30 ft)

2) In the film clip we saw in class, “Burn Noticed” HYPERLINK “” Jon Stewart analyses the need for a climate march. Is that the real reason he made this video? We want you to analyse this video in terms that could be understood by your mother or another person not in this class but using information you learned in this class. This means that you will use scientific and political terms that you will define.

For full credit, your answer will need to address the following specific points.
Where did the exchanges pictured take place and why are these significant to the American political process?
What kind of agenda setting was taking place at the Climate March and in the video? Was this politically effective?
Explain in detail why Carbon Dioxide levels are significant to global climate, For full credit:
Discuss CO2 as a greenhouse gas. How does it work?
Levels of CO2 production over time
Impacts of warming on other climate/weather systems
Explain “global wobbling” and why it is not relevant to climate modelling.
Representative Stockman is concerned with sea level rise, Stewart eloquently discards Stockman’s reasoning. However, he doesn’t discuss melting of ice on land. In detail discuss 1. which ice masses are currently melting and 2. what we know about what governs this melting and on what timescale are scientists expecting sea levels to rise. Specifically address the uncertainty factor and when we might expect ‘2 feet’ of sea level rise?
Why does Rep. Bucshon not ‘believe’ scientists because they are professionals? Explain the idea using explicit references to The Collapse of Western Civilization. (TCWC).

*Discuss the idea that it is unethical to discuss scary ideas that are uncertain. How much uncertainty surrounds the concepts of catastrophic climate change? What changes are highly likely/unlikely? Is it equally unethical to fail to discuss concepts that although unlikely are supremely catastrophic? For receive full credit, you must refer to the assigned reading on climate ethics or other ethical writings.
3.a) In The Darkening Sea, Ken Caldeira currently of Stanford University expressed the opinion that carbon emissions are like mugging little old ladies “If you are talking about mugging little old ladies you don’t say ‘what’s our target for mugging little old ladies?’ You say ‘Mugging little old ladies is bad we are going to try to eliminate it.’ Discuss this statement in ethical terms. Which groups of people and living things are most harmed by carbon emissions? Discuss what you think we should do about these harms. Support your assertions with reasoning or evidence from the reading. (Estimated answer length 1- 2 pages)

b) Professor* thinks climate change is an ethical problem in large part because humans are prioritizing their own lives and convenience over the lives and health of other creatures. Compare and contrast her point of view to that put forth by Broome in the assigned reading. Include in your answer, a discussion of the two views of future value and which one is Professor* taking. Support your opinions with evidence.

c) In his speech before congress, Pope Francis was delicate in his references to climate change and did not touch on why it is an ethical problem. However, from his writings in Laudatosi we know he thinks Climate Change is an ethical problem. Which view does Pope Francis take? What evidence supports your opinion? What parts of his argument do you find ethically the most powerful? Why?

4. Compare and contrast the views of a future with high carbon dioxide levels given in The Darkening Sea and The Butterfly and the Toad. Who (which species or types of species) will be the winners and losers on land and in the ocean? What will be the economic impacts of these changes?; give evidence for your assertions. Describe the scope of uncertainties surrounding anticipated extinctions and ecosystem shifts. Which geological periods are compared with the anticipated high carbon future? Discuss why you feel the evidence supports or fails to support such comparisons?

4 B. Dr. Chris Thomas maybe available to discuss Climate Change Biology and Extinction with the class. If you were able to ask him 3 questions which 3 questions would you ask about climate change biology, ecosystems or extinctions? For credit you must explain the rationale for each of the three questions thoroughly (no partial credit).

5. To understand the nature of the public policy process in the United States, one has to understand how agendas are set and how policies are formulated. In detail, a. describe the different types of agendas; b. the issue-attention cycle; and c. the different ways that members of Congress behave. (For parts b and c be sure to use the articles that deal with policy formulations).
What are some problems associated with Congress as outlined in the reading from Ornstein and Mann?

6. What are the pros and cons of a. cap and trade and b. a carbon tax. Be sure to include the tax structure in the United States and what impact both a and b might have on all members represented in the tax code—including small, midsize, and large corporations.


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